Category Archives: Articles

Classroom Organization – Guidelines For Teaching Rules and Procedures

Effective classroom management begins when a teacher knows the particular types of disruptive behavior s/he wants to curb and the types of positive behavior s/he wants to promote. Rules need to be thoughtfully planned with positive reinforcement and feedback.

 Rules refer to general expectations or standards for classroom behavior. The purpose is to create a strong expectation what is or is not acceptable. Some examples are:

• Well prepared material
• come to class on time
• Be respect to students when they are talking about their opinion

Ideally, you should start teaching your rules on the first day of school and continue reviewing them throughout the year putting a special emphasis on the first month.

 Procedures refer to a specific activity and methods for accomplishing daily routines. Some examples are:
• policy for handing in late assignments
• policy for coming in late
• policy for working in groups

 How should you go about teaching rules?
• State the rule clearly.
• Discuss why the rule is important
• Provide both positive and negative examples of the rule
• Don’t overdo this one, but discuss the consequences
• Do not make much rules (3-4 should be enough)

Group 5:
Titiah Dewi Masitoh (2009110024)
Evik Dwi Priagung (200110028)
Novani Lieadi (2009110032)
Huda Marofiq (2009110042)


Posted by on January 17, 2012 in Articles


Article for Week 13

There are four basic areas in managing classroom: Establishing Classroom Climate – the arrangement and atmosphere in class; Conducting Class Efficiently – manage time and students; Reaching All Students – delivery, encouragement, teaching methods; Establishing Discipline – make rules and regulation.

In creating classroom climate teacher wants, first decide arrangement of class. Discuss with students how to arrange the class. Make agreement with students to keep maintain a comfortable environment.

By good time and students management the class will run efficiently. Both students and teacher have to aware the procedure of the class. So, the students will be more focus in learning and it will help students became more discipline.

There are three ways to reach all the students. First make your delivery variously. Use facial expression and body language. Second, encourage students to be active and do their best, show to them that you are believe they can do it. Third, use vary and interesting teaching strategies to make learning interesting.

Rules and regulations are important to maintain the class keeps under control and discipline. It will grow students respect in each other.

Rahayu Wilujeng K.

Nur Arifin

Ismi Apriliani

Triana Afriani


Posted by on December 20, 2011 in Articles


Instructional Variables in meeting Individual Needs

Factors that influence students in meeting their individual needs are in the following.

1. Meaningful Reading and Writing tasks

Effective instruction emphasis on meaningful tasks of reading and writing. The focus of instruction should be on ways to help students integrate new knowledge with existing knowledge to construct meaning (Roehler & Duffy, 1991). Good readers spend the majority of their time engaged in meaning-making activities such as silent reading and peer discussions (Allington,  1983).

2. Expectation level

their potential is affected by the quality of instruction and the learning experiences provided. Research indicates that children in remedial and compensatory programs spend the majority of their time completing low-level tasks (Anderson & Pellicer, 1990; Allington & McGill-Franzen, 1989). Not only does this pattern reflect lower expectations, but students do not develop the higher levels of academic functioning necessary to achieve success in later years (Clifford, 1990)

3. Student’ Strength

Students is already able to do and linking what is already known with what remains to be learned. Teachers are providing scaffolds to help students bridge the gap between their current abilities and the intended goal.

4. Varying levels of Support

Students can learn from varying level of support. It might be introduced to a concept with the whole class,  work with peers in collaborative learning, and then work individually to apply the concept independently.

5. Active Involvement

Characteristic of effective instruction and learning is students are active participants in the learning process. Each student can share their opinion to other students and follow the activities based on instruction from the teacher. They can use each other opinion as learning resources to improve their knowledge.

6. Match Between Classroom and Support Programs

The effective classroom emphasizes to the strategies and skills. Coordination between the core curriculum and the curriculum is important to apply in the classroom.

7. Cultural Appropriateness

This factor of instruction includes consideration of the materials and types of activities used. Teacher can used various interesting methods that appropriate with students culture. For example, students can work in group (Collaborative learning) that has members from different cultures. They can contribute in doing the activities in group.


After we know about the factors of instructional variables, we conclude that instructional variables affect the students needs. Teacher must consider about what the students need and what they interested in. Teacher have an important role in giving various activity that can develop students interest and motivation in learning. But, students should to involved in the activity. Maybe they can share their opinion from teacher questioning, actively participate in group discussion, questioning from teacher in improving their critical thinking, etc. After teacher gave some task or questioning to the students, teacher can give feedback, so the students can improve their ability more deeply in doing better work.

Members of group:

Novani Lieadi (2009110032)

Titiah Dewi Masitoh (2009110024)

Evik Dwi Priagung (2009110028)

Huda Marofiq (2009110042)

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Posted by on December 13, 2011 in Articles


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The Definition of a Classroom Climate (Article Group 3) – Week 11

A classroom climate is the combination of variables within a classroom that work together to promote learning in a comfortable environment. There are many different variables that influence a classroom’s climate and certain elements, that are required to establish a successful learning environment:

  • Learning Locale

A classroom’s function is first and foremost to cultivate learning. Students should sense a classroom’s academic atmosphere from the moment they enter it. Every item in the classroom needs to emphasize learning in some fashion. Desks-position, teacher’s content area, board, and other learning locale are designed based on the needs in the class.

  • Respectful Room

In order for students to learn properly, a classroom climate has to include respect. Students all enter the classroom with a past, and they can often bring their problems into the class with them. However, a class climate cannot function properly if students are bickering or disrespecting one another. The teacher can help define his classroom climate by emphasizing the importance of respect on the very first day of class and dealing with outbursts accordingly. Respect is not limited to the students; teachers have to respect their students as much as they want their students to respect them.

  • Safe Space

Respect is only one of the classroom climate variables that promote learning. It does not guarantee that the classroom is a safe space, which is equally important for a classroom atmosphere. A safe space means that students are free to express themselves without the fear of being teased, harassed or bullied. Teachers create a safe space by using a zero-tolerance policy for any hateful or discriminatory behavior. Teachers can also model the behavior they wish their students to emulate to help define their class climate.

  • Teacher Tact

A teacher’s behavior has a great impact on his classroom climate. Teachers often spend too much time on how they want their classrooms to look or their students to behave that they neglect to focus on attuning themselves to their classroom climate. Teachers are a central variable in defining a classroom climate because they set the tone for their students to follow.

  • Student Synergy

Once teachers organize their classes to promote learning, establish a climate of respect and safety and behave in a way they wish their students to follow, it is up to the students to create the classroom climate that is specific to their personalities. Every classroom climate is different because it relies so heavily on the variables within it. Students make up the most populous of these variables and, when they feel they are in a safe and respectful environment, they will express themselves freely. Students’ personalities are integral in a unique and successful classroom climate.

Classroom Climate that Based on Students' Needs


Based on our discussion through this article and the lesson on the 10th and 11th weeks, we conclude that the classroom climate is one of many things that will influence students motivation to learn. Through this article, the conclusion that we made from this articles are:

  • We should consider the classroom tools position. The position itself may help or not the teacher and students’ activity in the class. Classroom situation also have to build respect, trustworthy, and togetherness among students-teacher also student-students. Based on Order theory those methods will help us to make a positive classroom environment.
  • Students need to feel safe in the class, so that they will feel free and confident to express their opinion in the class. Based on Safety theory this method will help us to make a positive classroom environment.
  • Teacher need to have big influences in motivate student and create a positive classroom climate. Teacher as a role model of student, that’s way the teacher should show a good attitude in front of student. To become a great teacher, teacher need more afford to do it. Because teacher should spend more energy and time.

Relate with safe theory in build a positive environment in classroom. Teacher should encourage student to respect each other. No bullying in the class, so every student free to show their ability, personality, and interest.


Group 3:

Jonathan Saputra (2009110004)

Aida Rahmi (20009110014)

Fitriyani (2009110020)

Hanna Anggraeni (2009110036)

Leave a comment

Posted by on December 6, 2011 in Articles


Positive Learning Environment

Promoting Classroom Rules that Motivate Students to Learn

By Tammy Andrew, a New England based teacher, writer, and editor.

Rules are not always a negative part of a classroom environment. Some expectations create positive environments that encourage students to learn.

Positive learning environments support the developmental needs of students not only academically but also socially and personally. These are places, such as classrooms, where children feel comfortable with themselves, safe amongst their peers and motivated to learn.

Since students are unique individuals and come from a variety of backgrounds and experience, a positive environment may not occur naturally but require careful nurturing from the teacher or adult in charge. Rules and expectations that promote positive learning environments in the classroom are a way to help create an environment of respect and learning.

Expectations that Promote Positive Learning Environments

Rules and expectations stated with positive language are a first step to creating a positive environment for learning. These rules should be applied fairly to all and be achievable for the age group. An expectation that students will “raise a hand if in need of assistance” is positive when compared to informing students that they “do not call out answers.”

Using rules and expectations to promote a positive learning environment means making sure all students are aware of these rules. In some situations, students in the class might be involved in creating the rules, thus providing a sense of ownership in the classroom environment. Other situations might call for the rules to be stated clearly and then an activity or game used to make sure each child understands them.

Rules the Classroom Teacher Should Follow

Rebecca Schauffele emphasizes that the source of a positive learning environment is the teacher or adult at the center of the learning. Students know that they should follow classroom rules, but will also quickly adapt to the teacher’s enforcement of those rules as much as the teacher’s personality and behavior.

Sometimes it is the little things that promote a positive behavior. Making eye contact with children and knowing their names, or stating something positive about an incorrect response before correcting it, shows children that they are important. Providing students with options, whether it be to ask young children in a class to vote as to whether to do math before or after lunch or giving each child a choice for how to creatively display a favorite scene from a book, empowers them and provides a sense of personal security. A teacher being upbeat about students and learning can also encourage both respect and a desire to learn.

The benefits to a positive environment are powerful. It provides students a place where they can be safe, respected and grow academically and personally. This is nurtured and encouraged by the teacher or adults through rules and expectations placed both on the students and the teacher.

Reference: Schauffele, Rebecca “Setting the Tone For a Positive Learning Environment.” Setting The Tone For A Positive Learning Environment.

Retrieved from:

Classroom rules can help teacher to make the students motivated. In this case, rules are not something negative that makes the students under pressure, but rules in this case are classroom agreements that are made by students to encourage them in learning. Expectation can also promote motivation for students. A positive classroom environment might not occur directly, but good nurturing from the teacher could make it. Classroom rules can help teacher to realize it.

In this case, rules should be applied fairly to all and be achievable for the age group. Providing students with options, whether it be to ask young children in a class to vote as to whether to do math before or after lunch or giving each child a choice for how to creatively display a favorite scene from a book, empowers them and provides a sense of personal security. Moreover, making eye contact with children and knowing their names, or giving positive feedback about an incorrect response before correcting it, shows children that they are important.

Creating positive environment for students to learn is important because it will make students feel secure to learn and respected for better academic and personal achievement.

Based on our group, we agree that sometimes making classroom rules is necessary because it will make students become discipline. Nevertheless, classroom rules should be based on students and teacher agreement because students need for autonomy, so they can choose what the best is for them and become aware about what will be better for their learning.

Faqih Al Adyan

Ratih Anindiya

Nia Salamah

Andi Firmansyah

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Posted by on November 29, 2011 in Articles



This article was adapted from “The Connection between Emotion and Learning “ by Candy Lawson, Ph.D.

EmotionEmotions are the feelings that color our lives and allow us to experience all of the joys and sorrows of life. Dr. Paul Ekman, an expert in the field of emotion, has identified four core emotions that are universally experienced and recognized: fear, anger, sadness and enjoyment. Most researchers believe that there are many families or dimensions of these emotions that result from the myriad blends, variations and nuances that are possible. For example, sorrow, loneliness, grief, dejection and despair are associated with sadness while happiness, joy, delight, contentment and amusement are associated with enjoyment.

Our thoughts and emotions can strongly affect motivation. Motivation is a drive or desire that compels us to do something. If we think we are a good singer, we will likely be motivated to become a member of our church choir. If we think we can’t sing, we won’t. Often students don’t seem to be motivated in school. They don’t want to do homework or schoolwork and believe that they have no control over their grades. They believe that they are dumb or stupid. Even though they put out effort, they are never successful and fail to achieve their goals. As a result, they begin to feel stressed out by school and start to feel helpless and hopeless. In this situation, their thoughts affected or caused their negative feelings. Other times students seem unmotivated because they are anxious or depressed. As a result, they have trouble concentrating in school and can’t keep their mind on their work. They may think too much about personal problems and focus on the negative. In this situation, their emotions affected or caused their negative thoughts. In both situations, a lack of motivation prevents new learning; it “turns off the switch”.

So in another words, we can conclude that good emotion has strong effect to increase students’ motivation to learn. Kind of emotions that student’s need to increase students’ motivation is good emotion, such as: happiness, joy and delight. Then, teacher should be able to direct the students’ emotion in order to increase students’ motivation through positive reinforcement.


Written by Group 1:

Desy Ayu Budi Pertiwi

Dian Eki Purwanti

Mita Pustari

Riyan Fajri

Shinta Puspita Kencanasari

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Posted by on November 1, 2011 in Articles



Motivating Students

Motivating students is a challenge all teachers face. Every classroom consists of a wide array of students and each of them brings different student learning styles, different interests, and different life experiences. That is what makes each classroom unique and special. There are several ways that teachers can tap into the individual learning styles and interests of students, thus making learning more fun and meaningful at the same time. One excellent way to start is by having strong classroom management skills; you can refine your natural talents in this area by following the tips found in Take Back That Class.

Here are some teaching ideas about how to motivate students:

Expectations. Teachers should set reasonable objectives for every lesson that allow their students to progress in the classroom. Expect students to achieve the objectives and they will. Studies show that students achieve at higher rates when their teachers have high expectations for them.

Uplifting. Keep the atmosphere in the classroom positive and uplifting. A cheerful and motivating environment will fuel the students’ intrinsic need to succeed in their endeavors.

Praise. Positive reinforcement is a tried and true method of teaching students new material. Make sure to let the students know that they have done a good job. For example, you can give rewards or stickers for high-test scores.

Variation. Because everyone learns differently, you will need to vary the means by which students earn rewards. Look at all aspects of the classroom when you are creating ways to reward the students. This includes test scores, daily lessons, and even student behavior.

Success. Motivate students by showing them that they can be successful in the classroom. Teachers can differentiate instruction to meet the students’ needs by adjusting the corresponding class work to the appropriate levels. Class work can be modified in a variety of ways: shortened assignments, extra response time or enrichment activities.

Relevance. Show students how what they are learning matters in real life. This is one of the most effective motivation techniques, especially for older students, as it lends meaning and purpose to their hard work. Guide students to discuss the new material, and allow students to draw on their own experiences to enrich and comprehend the new material.

Engaging Questions. Lead in with questions that will get the students talking. Encourage students to discuss the topic by bringing what they know about the topic to the classroom discussion. Clarify any questions that arise by encouraging the students to talk to each other first and expand on their pre-existing knowledge.

Problem Solving. Teaching students how to overcome challenges is another important factor in keeping them motivated. If they have the skills to navigate the problems they encounter they will achieve more. One way to do so is to encourage the pupils to ask questions when they are unclear on new material.

Teamwork. This is one of the most important factors in motivating students. When they work together to succeed at a common goal it will help them to bond and work well together in the future. Having this cohesion in the classroom will boost productivity amongst the students and make for a more positive teaching environment.

Incorporate different learning styles. Use a variety of teaching strategies in the classroom to facilitate the lesson. Classroom discussions consist of whole group learning. Cooperative group learning allows students to work together on assignments in small groups. Direct instruction allows teachers to model lesson assignments first so students can work independently at their desks.

Rewards and Privileges. Rewards and privileges are great motivational tools for hard work. Teachers can use a variety of them to motivate student participation. Examples of privileges or rewards are as follows:

  • Lunch with the teacher allows students to come back to the classroom and eat lunch with the teacher.
  • Extra center time allows students to have a few more minutes at a computer lab.
  • Pizza parties or snacks can be offered as incentives.
  • A token-based economy is a great reward system that lets students earn points or “tokens” that can be cashed in for prizes, such as pencils or notepads.

Motivating students with the rewards listed above is particularly effective for younger students.

Removing Barriers to Learning. Another means of motivating students is to remove the roadblocks that keep them from learning. Even with the proper motivation, a pupil faced with a barrier they don’t have the learning tools to overcome will not succeed and will lose motivation due to that lack of success. Spend some classroom time removing educational obstacles so the student can learn and grow. The following barriers to learning are factors that affect motivation.

  • Communication. Students and teachers need to communicate their needs with each other. Having open lines of communication with your students will make a large difference when trying to motivate them to do their work.
  • Safe Environment. Your students will learn best in a classroom that is free of debris. Keep the room tidy, with the help of your students! Requiring them to clean their own area of the classroom will also help them feel as though they are contributing to the group.
  • Accommodations. Some students will have limitations. Once these have been communicated you will want to work around the issue. Making small changes to help the students learn will keep them motivated. For example, some pupils may need left-handed scissors in the classroom in order to complete their work.
  • Seating. Plan the seating arrangements so that all the students have the same ability to retain new material. Some pupils learn best when they are at the front of the classroom instead of the back where they get easily distracted. Ensure that students are seated for optimal learning.
  • Rules. Clear rules give students a safe, dependable system in which to work. Have the class rules posted in a conspicuous place. Go over the rules with the students at the beginning of the year. Then make sure that they are posted where the pupils can glance at them any time.

There are lots of ways to motivate students. Most importantly teachers can show students that they can be great learners. By addressing the various needs of the students inside each classroom, students’ achievement levels will increase and so will their positive motivation.

Source: Motivating Students: Teaching Strategies for Student Learning by Marlese Durand


Every student is unique. They have different learning style, learning needs, and different motivation trough learning process in the school. This uniqueness create complex circumstance that require teacher to approaches students individually, in order to make learning take place.

From those three factors that influence students learning perfomance, motivation factor is the most influenced factor. Motivation to learn will give more spirit to face difficulties in learning process. Motivated students will tends to persevere and resist to solve problems that appear in learning process.

Then, what kind of motivation strategy that teachers need in the class? Here some alternatives that teachers could use in their class.

  • Praise

Positive reinforcement is one of common way to increase students motivation. However, in some circumstances positive reinforcement, such as giving reward in form of things, could lead students motivation to get the reward not to learn. In order to avoid this disadvantage, reward or praise that teacher could use is more tends to non-things reward, such as applause, verbal praise, extra marks, etc.

  • Teamwork

Using teamwork in class could create belonging feeling to the class. This feeling could increase students motivation in the learning process. this could be happened because the students feel that she/he is part of the class and trust feeling to their friends.

  • Success

Teacher usually use this strategy in the difficult topic. By designing material delivering and problem level, from low to hard, teacher could plant confidentiality to all of students that they are able and capable to solve every problem that they face in the learning process.

Those are some examples of strategy that teachers could apply in their classroom in order to motivate their students. Actually, there are more strategies that exist there. You also could share your opinion or strategy that you have been applied in your classroom.

Titiah Dewi Masitoh

Evik Dwi Priagung

Novani Lieadi

Huda Marofiq

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Posted by on October 25, 2011 in Articles


High Expectations in the Classroom

Expectations play an important role in education. Students who are expected to get good grades and go on to college usually do, but what about those who are the focus of lower expectations? By projecting high expectations for all students, teachers can motivate children to achieve more, leading them to a brighter future.

Importance of High Expectations

o    According to Ross Miller of the Association of American Colleges and Universities, raising expectations can lead to higher achievement, and numerous studies show that people with high expectations perform at a higher level than those with low expectations, even when their abilities are equal. High expectations can even transform a student’s belief and behavior and turn a low-performing student into a successful learner.


o    Miller asserts that the Pygmalion effect — people will perform how you expect them to — can also have a negative effect. With the prevalence of standardized tests, many schools expect students to pass the test and therefore focus on teaching only the minimum needed to pass, rather than challenging them to do more. According to the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), engaging students in a challenging, fast-paced curriculum produces positive academic and social outcomes. Activities that encourage critical thinking and inquiry communicate the expectation that students are capable of higher-level thinking, complex problem-solving and decision-making.

Developing High Expectations in the Classroom

o    Several factors can project higher expectations to students. First, create an environment conducive to learning in your classroom. Increase the input you give to students, because expending more time and effort shows that you expect more. Finally, encourage students to give responses and increased output; students will do the work you expect them to do if they feel you support them.

The NCREL reports that the most effective way to convey high expectations to students is to establish personal relationships that communicate support, simply telling students, “I know you can do it; I believe in you.” You must provide the support children need to achieve what you expect. Look for each student’s strengths and find ways to use them to facilitate learning. Even students with the lowest self-esteem can become motivated when they feel that a teacher believes in them, and this can lead them to believe in themselves and have higher expectations for their own future.

Factors That Shape Expectations

o    Miller writes that measured ability often shapes teacher expectations, but this shouldn’t always be true. Teachers usually project high expectations for students with high ability, such as gifted or honors students, and these students usually succeed in school and go on to post-secondary education. When a student’s failure is attributed to low ability, a teacher will begin to expect less in the future.

But many students mask their own ability because of laziness, low self-esteem or rebellion. These students can blossom into high achievers when they know more is expected of them. Accordingly, students who believe they have low ability because of years of low expectations will eventually lose their motivation to learn. A teacher who has high expectations and teaches students that success is linked more to effort than to ability can help these students succeed.

Sometimes, teachers alter expectations according to race, ethnicity, life experiences and socioeconomic status, but according to Miller, successful teachers have uniformly high expectations for every student. According to the NCREL, schools with high expectations and support to help students achieve these expectations have fewer students who drop out and more who go on to college.

Expectations for Teachers

o    Miller writes that teachers who doubt their own efficacy exert less effort in instructing students, leading to lower student performance. Likewise, school administrators must exhibit high expectations for all teachers. Schools should strive to create a climate of high expectations, which will motivate teachers and students to achieve more.


Our Summary

Expectations play an important role in teaching and learning activities, either it is positive or negative. Ross Miller of the Association of American Colleges and Universities said that who have expectations will have motivation to have a higher achievement than who are not. Miller said Pygmalion effect also has negative side. For example, many school focus to make the students be able to pass examination, whereas the main purposes of education some not only that. Education is more about creating people to be ready to face the world using some skills like problem solving, critical thinking, etc.

People who are expected to do something usually will only focus to what they are expected to. To make students have high expectations, teacher has to build a personal relationship and support them. Students will have more motivation if teacher believes in them. Teacher usually has high expectation to students who have high ability and less to students who have low ability. Laziness and low self esteem are some aspects which can block students to have high ability. Teacher must help them to find out their own expectation, motivate and support them to become a high achiever. School also needs to have high expectation to the teacher and help them to help students.



Ismi Apriliani

Nur Arifin

Rahayu Kinasih

Triana Afriani



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Posted by on October 11, 2011 in Articles


Self-Determination and Self-Worth in Motivation


People have an external ‘perceived locus of causality’ (PLOC) to the extent they sees forces outside the self as initiating, pressuring, or coercing one’s action. In an internal PLOC a person feels they are the initiator and sustainer of their own actions.

People with a higher internal PLOC thus feel self-determined in that they see their behavior as stemming from their own choices, values, and interests, whereas those with an external PLOC experience their behavior as controlled by some external event, person, or force.

The internal locus is connected with intrinsic motivation, whilst the external locus is connected with extrinsic motivation.

The distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic is a core part of Self-Determination Theory (SDT), which was developed in the wake of Behavioralism and Conditioning, where behavior management is based around reward and punishment. SDT extends this extrinsic view to consider intrinsic effects.

There are three needs that SDT identifies as requiring satisfaction:

  • Competence: succeeding in what you do.
  • Relatedness: connecting with others.
  • Autonomy: being in control of your life.


I feel in control of my own life. I feel responsible for my actions. I have a high internal locus and motivate myself. My friend is always complaining that they are being ‘forced’ to do things and that life is not fair. They have a high external locus and are more affected by reward and punishment.

So What?

Using it

Find out whether people have stronger internal or external locus and then persuade them accordingly. For internal locus, you might show how they are control and let them choose. For external locus you could show how they are being driven by outer forces and then offer a safe haven for them.


Understand your own PLOC and how you attribute cause. Think about whether this is effective for you and whether you want to change it. Also note how this relates to how others persuade you (and how you persuade yourself).

2.      Self-Worth

Self-worth theory states that in certain situations students stand to gain by not trying and deliberately withholding effort. If poor performance is a threat to a person’s sense of self-esteem, this lack of effort is likely to occur. This most often occurs after an experience of failure. Failure threatens self-estimates of ability and creates uncertainty about an individual’s capability to perform well on a subsequent basis.

If the following performance turns out to be poor, then doubts concerning ability are confirmed. Self-worth theory states that one way to avoid threat to self-esteem is by withdrawing effort. Withdrawing effort allows failure to be attributed to lack of effort rather than low ability which reduces overall risk to the value of one’s self-esteem.

When poor performance is likely to reflect poor ability, a situation of high threat is created to the individual’s intellect. On the other hand, if an excuse allows poor performance to be attributed to a factor unrelated to ability, the threat to self-esteem and one’s intellect is much lower (Thompson, Davidson, & Barber, 1995).

A study was conducted on students involving unsolvable problems to test some assumptions of the self-worth theory regarding motivation and effort. The results showed that there was no evidence of reported reduction of effort despite poorer performance when the tasks were described as moderately difficult as compared with tasks much higher in difficulty.

The possibility was raised that low effort may not be responsible for the poor performance of students in situations which create threats to self-esteem. Two suggestions were made, one being that students might unconsciously withdraw effort, and the other stating that students may reduce effort as a result of withdrawing commitment from the problem. Regardless of which suggestion is true, self-worth theory assumes that individuals have a reduced tendency to take personal responsibility for failure (Thompson, Davidson, & Barber, 1995).



After we learned about Self-Determination and Self-Worth in the classroom and read those articles, we conclude that:

·         We need to build students’ self-determination and self-worth

Self-determination and self-worth are important for students in learning activity. Through self-determination and self-worth, students will have more motivation to learn. Self-determination will improve their extrinsic motivation while self-worth will improve their intrinsic motivation.

·         Teacher should create a good classroom management

Classroom management can be used by the teacher in order to improve students’ self-determination and self-worth. It will become a tool for teacher to make the lesson more meaningful. Time management, sitting position, ground rule, and classroom environment are the parts of classroom management.

·         Teacher’s behavior will impact students’ motivation

Teacher’s behavior in delivering the lesson will impact students’ motivation extrinsically and intrinsically. For example, teacher must give an appropriate feedback for students’ performance. The feedback should increase students’ motivation. Another example is the way that teacher used in giving assignment. Teacher should give a freedom for the students to express their creativity in doing the assignments.

So, the role of teacher is important in increasing students’ motivation in learning process. Motivation also can be built by having a good self-determination and self-worth. Then, the lesson will be more meaningful.

Group 3

– Jonathan Saputra (2009110004)

– Aida Rahmi (2009110014)

– Fitriyani (2009110020)

– Hanna Anggraeni (2009110036)


Posted by on October 4, 2011 in Articles


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Maslow’s Theory of Hierarchical Needs – Alive and Well in the Classroom

by Chuck Brickman

We are probably all familiar with Abraham Maslow’s Theory of Hierarchical Needs; Psychological Needs, Safety Needs, Belongingness and Love Needs, Esteem Needs, Need to Know and Understand, Aesthetic Needs, and Self-Actualization Needs. And we probably all remember that, according to Maslow’s theory, needs that are in the lower hierarchy must be at least partially met before a person will try to satisfy higher-level needs. Although ultimately our goal is to aid students in self-actualizing or becoming “all that one can be,” they must first achieve the level of Need to Know and Understand.

But what does this mean for teachers and how does it impact student performance and learning in the classroom?

Schools and government agencies have long realized that if students’ basic needs are not met student performance will suffer. The advent of free breakfast and lunch programs was a direct result of such considerations. Unfortunately, these measures address only part of the first tier of Maslow’s theory; physiological needs. Addressing basic physiological needs is still a key concern in today’s classroom. Lack of proper nutrition, personal hygiene and even sleep affects many of today’s students. In lower socioeconomic areas these concerns are further accentuated. These basic needs must be met before the student can reach the next level.

Student safety needs play a critical role in achieving student success. The need for a structured and safe classroom is essential for student growth and progression. A structured classroom provides psychological safety for the student. By having knowledge of clearly defined and established processes, procedures, rules and practices you eliminate students’ fear of the unknown. By gaining knowledge of the expected dynamics of the classroom, the student gains more control of their environment simply by being aware of what is going to happen before it happens. A safe environment is not limited to physical parameters. Students must not only feel safe in the classroom physically, but emotionally and psychologically as well. An environment must be provided and maintained where students feel free to take risks — such as answering a question or sharing thoughts without concern for ridicule or teasing by other students. Additionally, students must trust that the teacher will not ridicule, use sarcasm, or otherwise berate the student when answering questions or addressing issues. The student must feel a degree of safety in all aspects of the classroom and school environment before progressing to the next step in Maslow’s theory — belongingness and love needs.

Robert Slavin, in his book, Educational Psychological notes, “The most important…needs, however, may be those for love and self-esteem.” The student must feel that he/she is important as an individual — that he/she is lovable and is deserving of being loved and cared about. Oftentimes the only time that these attributes are reinforced may be by the teacher at school. Students must be made aware that teachers value them as individuals as well as the work they perform. We as teachers must take advantage of each and every opportunity to reinforce each student’s self-esteem in the manner in which we treat them in the classroom. This reinforcement of positive attributes of the student in turn aids in developing respect or a favorable impression of oneself.

Once these needs are met, the student may then move to the next level–need to know and understand. It is at this level that the student is most receptive to learning. Our challenge is to aid the student in achieving this level.

What we can do as teachers to aid students in moving up Maslow’s Hierarchy

    1. Understand that each student brings his/her own unique background to the classroom. A student’s readiness to learn is not solely dependent upon existing knowledge and skills. We must develop a relationship with the student in order to determine their current readiness level. Once determined, we must develop a strategy to address current needs as well as the needs in the next level. In many instances this may involve additional community and governmental resources, especially at the lower levels.


    1. Create a safe classroom environment. Develop rules and procedures which provide a structured environment rich in routine and shared expectations. Develop and enforce rules prohibiting sarcastic, degrading, and berating remarks and comments by students directed at other students. In my classroom I implemented a “No Hunting” rule. No student may physically or verbally hurt another. Additionally, learn to use positive reinforcement instead of negative reinforcement to correct student behaviors. Lastly, provide copious amounts of praise and reinforcement for student risk taking. Become an advocate for each of your students. Take time out to let each student know how well they are doing. This could take the form of a short handwritten note on their papers, or verbal comment. The key is to focus on the students’ positive attributes and aid the student in developing an increased level of self-esteem.


  1. Let students know that you care about them. Although many of us assume our students know this, it’s not necessarily the case. Let the students know that you want them to succeed, whether it be to pass your latest test, or class, or graduate from college and get a good job. Let them know that you appreciate the work they do on classwork, or a test, or homework. Take the time out to explain issues and concerns with them. When feasible, provide student participation in the class decision-making process. Opportunities include scheduling tests, methods for teaching material, and scheduling blocks of instruction.

Although many issues pertaining to student progress in Maslow’s Hierarchy emanate from outside the school environment, as teachers we are in a position to strongly influence student outcomes. However, to change outcomes we must first understand that we must assess the whole child to include not only student knowledge of material but, more importantly, student readiness levels based on Maslow’s theory and obstacles to learning. Only when we address both of the issues will student learning be enhanced and maximized.


Based on abraham Maslow’s theory of hierarchical needs, people should achieve the basic level before they  try to reach the higher level of needs. What teachers do in the class adapting to the Maslow’s theory is to aid students in reaching self-actualization in order to develop their talents and potential. Providing free breakfast or maybe meals for students who haven’t had breakfast is a kind of effort to prepare them be fresh and fit, because lack of nutrition can distract students’ concentration in classroom. This is kind of motivation for students to be cheerful going to the school. So, the first need (psychological) is fulfilled.

Creating dynamic and respectful classroom atmosphere will help students to build their safe environment in physical, emotional, and psychological ways. For example, they feel free to answer, give questions, and share their ideas without any anxieties of being berated. So, they will be motivated to be active in the class. This can improve students’ achievements in academic. In addition, students have to trust that the teacher can be respectful and wise while hearing their answers and opinion.

After reaching that level, students can jump to the next level; belongings and love needs. This stage shows that students want to be loved and cared, and want the teacher values them as important as human-beings. If teacher shows his/her attention towards all students, they will be motivated to learned because they will feel that they are important and being honored by their teacher. This is important for teacher to fulfill this need because it can motivate students well.

Teachers can do some strategies in reaching Maslow’s  hierarchy of needs, they are:
– Understanding the uniqueness of the students’ background, which is the level of students’ abilities. After knowing each level of students, teacher can make some strategies to address their needs.
– Building safe classroom environment. Teacher can use positive reinforcement and become adviser for each student. Teacher focuses on positive attributes, students development and level of self-esteem.
– Letting them know that you, as their teacher, care about them, appreciate their work and want them to succeed.

If we as teacher candidates apply this theory in classroom, we might help our students to do their best in learning and motivate them to achieve as well as possible.


Faqih Al Adyan (2009110038)

Ratih Anindiya (2009110002)

Nia Salamah (2009110018)

Andi Firmansyah (2009110012)


Posted by on September 26, 2011 in Articles