Tag Archives: mmsel

Week 12: Instructional Variable & Motivation Session

Last week, MMSEL class was very different with previous class. Most of MMSEL class last week spent in an activity, outdoor activity, motivation session. Before that activity begun, Ms. Lidya asked us to show our emotion that day, whether happy, sad, sleepy, or whatever emotion that day without say even a word. We have to use our face to express our feeling. So many expression appears, but mostly is happy, about me of course still sleepy hehehehe. After showing our face expression, we continued to watching video (thanks to Ratih for remind me about this). The video shows teacher who gave instruction to students and the students seems very well prepared for these instructions. In my opinion, it takes times to make students do something like that, and it was amazing.

Next activity learns about Instructional Variables. The instructional variables divided into four parts, introductory focus, personalization, involvement, and feedback. First is introductory focus, it means teacher should be able to create a beginning or opening of a class that attract students’ attention. Besides attract students’ attention, opening activity also should be able to provide a conceptual framework for students. Hence, the expected result is students’ attention gained and they got conceptual knowledge of the material.

Second is personalization, it means that teacher should be able to make connection between the material and students’ live. This is also important for help students to get the main concept of the material. The common example is contextual learning that related the learning material into real life condition.

The main activity in last week is motivation session. We were divided based on article’s posting group to create a motivation session. In my group which consists of Novani, Evik, Titiah, and I choose multiple intelligences as main topic to be delivered. Then, we began to discuss the technical aspects and how we will deliver the material. Based on discussion, Evik was chosen as motivator, Novani as Agnes Mocerai, Titiah as Valentina Rissa, and I as moderator. Then, when our turn comes we begin the role play. The main point of role pay is to convey the teacher candidates/audiences that students are unique; they have different need and different interest in learning. So, as teacher we have to aware and do not force what we want to them.

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Posted by on December 13, 2011 in Reflection week 12


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Instructional Variables in meeting Individual Needs

Factors that influence students in meeting their individual needs are in the following.

1. Meaningful Reading and Writing tasks

Effective instruction emphasis on meaningful tasks of reading and writing. The focus of instruction should be on ways to help students integrate new knowledge with existing knowledge to construct meaning (Roehler & Duffy, 1991). Good readers spend the majority of their time engaged in meaning-making activities such as silent reading and peer discussions (Allington,  1983).

2. Expectation level

their potential is affected by the quality of instruction and the learning experiences provided. Research indicates that children in remedial and compensatory programs spend the majority of their time completing low-level tasks (Anderson & Pellicer, 1990; Allington & McGill-Franzen, 1989). Not only does this pattern reflect lower expectations, but students do not develop the higher levels of academic functioning necessary to achieve success in later years (Clifford, 1990)

3. Student’ Strength

Students is already able to do and linking what is already known with what remains to be learned. Teachers are providing scaffolds to help students bridge the gap between their current abilities and the intended goal.

4. Varying levels of Support

Students can learn from varying level of support. It might be introduced to a concept with the whole class,  work with peers in collaborative learning, and then work individually to apply the concept independently.

5. Active Involvement

Characteristic of effective instruction and learning is students are active participants in the learning process. Each student can share their opinion to other students and follow the activities based on instruction from the teacher. They can use each other opinion as learning resources to improve their knowledge.

6. Match Between Classroom and Support Programs

The effective classroom emphasizes to the strategies and skills. Coordination between the core curriculum and the curriculum is important to apply in the classroom.

7. Cultural Appropriateness

This factor of instruction includes consideration of the materials and types of activities used. Teacher can used various interesting methods that appropriate with students culture. For example, students can work in group (Collaborative learning) that has members from different cultures. They can contribute in doing the activities in group.


After we know about the factors of instructional variables, we conclude that instructional variables affect the students needs. Teacher must consider about what the students need and what they interested in. Teacher have an important role in giving various activity that can develop students interest and motivation in learning. But, students should to involved in the activity. Maybe they can share their opinion from teacher questioning, actively participate in group discussion, questioning from teacher in improving their critical thinking, etc. After teacher gave some task or questioning to the students, teacher can give feedback, so the students can improve their ability more deeply in doing better work.

Members of group:

Novani Lieadi (2009110032)

Titiah Dewi Masitoh (2009110024)

Evik Dwi Priagung (2009110028)

Huda Marofiq (2009110042)

Resource article:

Resource image :

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Posted by on December 13, 2011 in Articles


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We, as a Motivator :)

MMSEL class in the last meeting was very interesting! It was because of the activity. We did motivation session that made by us as a motivator. Each group have different theme of motivation session and for sure it was interesting. 🙂

Before we did the activity, we started the class by showing others about our mood todays. So, we can know what others feeling in the morning when class started. That’s funny, because my friends and I gave different emoticon that showed on their face. It was happy, sad, broken, no feeling, sleepy, etc. But, most of them gave a happy face because we know that the class will be funny and interesting! 🙂

Ok, for the first, Mrs. Lydia explained us about Instructional variables, developing interest in learning activities. Instructional variables are very important to increase students’ motivation in learning. Instructional variables consist of introductory focus, understanding personalization, promoting involvement, and feedback. Introductory focus is a lesson beginning that attracts attention and provides a conceptual framework for the lesson. In this part, we talk about how to get student’s attention in the beginning of the lesson, how to make students interest and want to know more about the lesson. We can use some tools/techniques for this, we can give problems or questions to students that related to the lesson, concrete examples, also give explanation about the objectives.

If we talk about personalization, we concern about what the teacher can do to personalize the lesson to students’ lives. We try to understand what students want and don’t go far away from what the students know and also students environment. That’s we called it understanding personalization, try to understand the students.

Then, involvement talk about the interesting way to make students involved in the activity, so they can actively participating in learning activity. Maybe we can use open ended question for strategy in promoting involvement because open ended questions is important to increase intrinsic interest and students’ motivation. Each student will feel free to share their opinion to others and maybe we can more understand about their ability and what they want to know. For the last, it’s about feedback. We can meet the students need and what they can improve.

After that, we did motivation session and we acted as a motivator. My group and I talk about multiple intelligences. For the motivation session, evik acted as a moderator, huda as presenter, Titiah as Valentino risa and I acted as Agnes Mocere. What a weird name I think. haha  -___-a Ok forget it, we continue. Agnes is a singer, and valentino as a racer. They have their own ability. Maybe they have abilities in Math, English, science, art, writing, and etc. But, they have chosen what they want to improve until they were being a people like now, as a singer and as a racer. As a teacher, maybe we can force the students to do all various intelligences. They can choose what the best one for them, they have different multiple intelligences and they can improve their abilities with their intelligences. And when we talk about motivation, we can support them to reach what they want because their life is in their hand, teacher only act as a motivator for them that always supporting them to be the best one. 🙂

Novani Lieadi


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Posted by on December 13, 2011 in Reflection per week, Reflection week 12


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Week 11th Reflection: Positive Climate and Motivation

In this week we have three major activities in our MMSEL class, drawing, gallery walk and role play. Those three activities were helping me understand what kind of factors or aspects that needed in our class in order to make our students motivated to learning and motivated in the learning process.

First is drawing about classroom condition that bring positive climate and motivate students to learn. Last week I drew a class with semi-circle siting arrangement, so teacher could see all students and all students could see teacher too. Other consideration was this class expected to accommodate students with visual type learning, this sitting arrangement provide equal chance to see the board. I also tried to accommodate kinesthetic learner, this semi-circle sitting arrangement provide more spaces so kinesthetic learner will have more chance to move. Besides that to support learning process, I also put some learning resources and computer that connected to internet in one corner of the class, for preparation just in case if students need more resources.

After finished the drawing, Ms. Lidya asked us to put our drawings to the wall and did gallery walk. The class divided into two group, first group was consists of half of students’ numbers will stayed in their drawings ad explain what the meaning that lay behind the drawing. The rest students will present their drawings later after Ms. Lidya give instruction to swap the position.

When the gallery walk finished, Ms. Lidya formed group to make role play about topic that given. My group consists of Ratih, Shinta, Nanay, Joey and I, presented role play about Order and Safety in the class. Then, after several minutes discussion we decided to divide the role of each person. Joey and I became students who bullied Shinta and Nanay, and Ratih become teacher. Our role play was good enough, so our friends could get the message that we want to deliver through role play.

Another role good role play was fourth group who presented role play based on topic Task Comprehension. They played the role play very well and from their role play I could get that in Task Comprehension, they emphasize on students need for autonomy by gave students chance to choose task that students want to do. Besides that, fourth group also emphasize on importance of the task for students and how to increase students’ awareness of what students should do in order to complete the task.

Gallery walk and role play really help me to understand the material easily. I hope I can create activities that more interesting in my future class, so my students will motivated and enjoy the learning process, and more important is to make them addicted for learning.

Huda Marofiq


Posted by on December 6, 2011 in Reflection week 11


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Create a Motivating Classroom :)

As always, MMSEL class in the last meeting was interesting because we did drawing and role play again. We learned about class climate through those activities. First, draw condition of class that represent effective classroom that can increase students motivation in learning process. We design our own classroom that can be effective classroom environment in supporting students’ motivation in learning.

There are one teacher and some students in the picture of my own classroom. Students work in group and make a discussion. So, they can share their opinion to each other. We draw students in group discussion doesn’t mean that the students always work in groups because it can’t be effective. Sometimes they need to work and learn individually, then try to understand about what the teacher explained. So, there is a time to learn individually and also to learn in group. In my picture, teacher was illustrated move from one side to other side. It means that the teacher walk around the class to monitor the students. If teacher found the student who can’t understand well, teacher will help them. The result of group work will be presented and explained by the students in front of the class, so each group can share each other to get other information that is meaningful for them. Then, the product of student’s project will be displayed in the class. It shows appreciation from the teacher to students.

I think class condition that I draw can represent about the effective classroom climate that can motivate students in learning. But there are some conditions also from the teacher that can create a motivating classroom. Those are order and safety, success, challenge, and task comprehension. Mrs. Lydia divides us into some groups and each group did role play to represent about one aspect. My group and I did role play about success developing learner efficacy. To develop it, teacher can start the lesson with questioning and give open ended question, use variety of high quality examples, develop lessons questioning, and also give feedback to students. So they can increase their performance in learning better.

From other groups, I also learned about order and safety, challenge, and task comprehension. I will explain more about challenge in this reflection. I learned this from group 2. About challenge, teacher increase students’ perception about their ability. Students have to know their own ability and what they can improve, but still have a confidence that they can do their best in doing work. If teacher find the student who can’t do their work, teacher can ask them to discuss with their friends so students can know about other perception how to solve the problem. After they finished their work, they can take other problem, higher problem that can increase their competence. In this case, teacher encourages students and gives challenge to the students.

We learned a lot from this activity, how to design an effective classroom climate and how to create a motivating classroom. Hopefully I can be a teacher who can make positive classroom climate, a motivating classroom that can support students’ learning. 🙂

Novani Lieadi



Posted by on December 6, 2011 in Reflection week 11


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Week 10th: Teacher, Learner, and Class Environment

This week is first meeting after midterm. In this tenth week we did several activities in class. These activities were doing in group. There are three groups, A, B, and C. Each group has different topic to discuss. Group A focused on classroom environment, group B focused on learner aspect, and group C focused on teacher characteristics aspect. At that time I got B as my group.

First activity was writing; Ms. Lidya distributed piece of paper to us. Then, we asked to write paragraphs that explain about our most skillful field of us. Fortunately, Ms. Lidya provided guiding question to us that helpful for us to write our most skillful field, like what is the skill that we mastered, how we master it, is there any obstacle in master it, value that we got, and motivation to master it. After finished our writing, Ms. Lidya asked us to discuss with other group’s member in small group of three. In that discussion I got Faqih and Ipin as my discussion partner, we shared our though based on aspect that we have been given before.

When the discussion finished, we continue to next activity, searching information on library and internet. Group A searching about classroom structure, group B (my group) searching about self-regulation, and group C searching about teacher characteristics. In this activity, group A, B, and C divided into two small groups so there were six groups in the class. In these small groups we work to prepare gallery walk, some of us used book and others use internet reference. After several minutes searching information and discuss in small group, we wrote the discussion result in our given flipchart.

After our preparation finished, we began gallery walk activity. One of group member stay in the poster as presenter of poster and the rest of group members visited other groups’ posters. The visitors listen to presenter explanation, asked for more detail information. Unfortunately, in this time I only could visit classroom structure poster and missed teacher characteristics poster. It happened because when I want to visit the teacher characteristics I swap position with Joey as presenter. However, in the last minutes I had little time to saw the teacher characteristics poster, but still not enough.

Overall, last week meeting went well. Generally, classroom structure, learners’ self-regulation, and teacher characteristics build atmosphere that influence students motivation to learn and in learning process. One thing that I thought missed is confirmation of information from Ms. Lydia toward information that we got from internet.

Huda Marofiq

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Posted by on November 28, 2011 in Reflection week 10


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Week Two: Breakfast, Poster, Role Play, & Maslow

Week two of MMSEL class was started by remembering classmates’ name and their breakfast from the first row to the last row. Hahahahaha, it was hard enough to remember classmates breakfast, because some of them have extraordinary breakfast (for example me hehehe). I was fortune enough, because at that time I sat on second row, it about at 9 or 10 chairs from first mate. The most unlucky one is my friend who sat on the last chair, Nanai. She has to remember 20+1 (include Miss Lydia)’s breakfast, wow it was hard job. 🙂

After nickname and breakfast thing, our class continue to poster presentations,we were presenting poster that we have done in first week. The presentation method is 2 stay-2 stray, so we could learn all of materials from other group’s posters. It is a good chance to present and learn from other at once. My group, consist of Evik, Novani, Titiah, and I, presented Sociocultural theory fron vygotski. Actually, the content of posters are similar (I think it same) with learning theory that we have got in first semester. So, it make us feel familiar with those materials. After poster group presentation, we continued to Maslow’s Theory. Because of one of our groups presented Maslow’s theory, so explanation about Maslow’s theory explain by Maslow’s group.

Next activity was role play. Before role play started, Miss Lydia divide us into pair work, distribute material papers and discuss with pair. The material is about self determination, which divided into 3 needs, competence, autonomy, and relatedness. After pair discussion, miss Lydia ask us to merge pairs to bigger group and sharing our findings, and also tried to make up a role play based on the selected material. It was hard at first, we must make up a-non-preparation role play, but after several minutes brainstorming we could make a good enough role play. As a result, my group could show ‘awesome’ acting.

The last activity is learn about self worth. Self worth is a emotional reaction that purposed to protect their pride and to gain acceptance or acknowledgment from others. Even, sometimes people could lies for the sake of self worth.

This MMSEL week is getting better, and I hope always getting better in next time (I am not said first class is not good). I also hope MMSEL give me knowledge and competence in giving motivation for my beloved students in the future.

Huda Marofiq


Posted by on October 4, 2011 in Reflection week 2


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Self-Determination and Self-Worth in Motivation


People have an external ‘perceived locus of causality’ (PLOC) to the extent they sees forces outside the self as initiating, pressuring, or coercing one’s action. In an internal PLOC a person feels they are the initiator and sustainer of their own actions.

People with a higher internal PLOC thus feel self-determined in that they see their behavior as stemming from their own choices, values, and interests, whereas those with an external PLOC experience their behavior as controlled by some external event, person, or force.

The internal locus is connected with intrinsic motivation, whilst the external locus is connected with extrinsic motivation.

The distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic is a core part of Self-Determination Theory (SDT), which was developed in the wake of Behavioralism and Conditioning, where behavior management is based around reward and punishment. SDT extends this extrinsic view to consider intrinsic effects.

There are three needs that SDT identifies as requiring satisfaction:

  • Competence: succeeding in what you do.
  • Relatedness: connecting with others.
  • Autonomy: being in control of your life.


I feel in control of my own life. I feel responsible for my actions. I have a high internal locus and motivate myself. My friend is always complaining that they are being ‘forced’ to do things and that life is not fair. They have a high external locus and are more affected by reward and punishment.

So What?

Using it

Find out whether people have stronger internal or external locus and then persuade them accordingly. For internal locus, you might show how they are control and let them choose. For external locus you could show how they are being driven by outer forces and then offer a safe haven for them.


Understand your own PLOC and how you attribute cause. Think about whether this is effective for you and whether you want to change it. Also note how this relates to how others persuade you (and how you persuade yourself).

2.      Self-Worth

Self-worth theory states that in certain situations students stand to gain by not trying and deliberately withholding effort. If poor performance is a threat to a person’s sense of self-esteem, this lack of effort is likely to occur. This most often occurs after an experience of failure. Failure threatens self-estimates of ability and creates uncertainty about an individual’s capability to perform well on a subsequent basis.

If the following performance turns out to be poor, then doubts concerning ability are confirmed. Self-worth theory states that one way to avoid threat to self-esteem is by withdrawing effort. Withdrawing effort allows failure to be attributed to lack of effort rather than low ability which reduces overall risk to the value of one’s self-esteem.

When poor performance is likely to reflect poor ability, a situation of high threat is created to the individual’s intellect. On the other hand, if an excuse allows poor performance to be attributed to a factor unrelated to ability, the threat to self-esteem and one’s intellect is much lower (Thompson, Davidson, & Barber, 1995).

A study was conducted on students involving unsolvable problems to test some assumptions of the self-worth theory regarding motivation and effort. The results showed that there was no evidence of reported reduction of effort despite poorer performance when the tasks were described as moderately difficult as compared with tasks much higher in difficulty.

The possibility was raised that low effort may not be responsible for the poor performance of students in situations which create threats to self-esteem. Two suggestions were made, one being that students might unconsciously withdraw effort, and the other stating that students may reduce effort as a result of withdrawing commitment from the problem. Regardless of which suggestion is true, self-worth theory assumes that individuals have a reduced tendency to take personal responsibility for failure (Thompson, Davidson, & Barber, 1995).



After we learned about Self-Determination and Self-Worth in the classroom and read those articles, we conclude that:

·         We need to build students’ self-determination and self-worth

Self-determination and self-worth are important for students in learning activity. Through self-determination and self-worth, students will have more motivation to learn. Self-determination will improve their extrinsic motivation while self-worth will improve their intrinsic motivation.

·         Teacher should create a good classroom management

Classroom management can be used by the teacher in order to improve students’ self-determination and self-worth. It will become a tool for teacher to make the lesson more meaningful. Time management, sitting position, ground rule, and classroom environment are the parts of classroom management.

·         Teacher’s behavior will impact students’ motivation

Teacher’s behavior in delivering the lesson will impact students’ motivation extrinsically and intrinsically. For example, teacher must give an appropriate feedback for students’ performance. The feedback should increase students’ motivation. Another example is the way that teacher used in giving assignment. Teacher should give a freedom for the students to express their creativity in doing the assignments.

So, the role of teacher is important in increasing students’ motivation in learning process. Motivation also can be built by having a good self-determination and self-worth. Then, the lesson will be more meaningful.

Group 3

– Jonathan Saputra (2009110004)

– Aida Rahmi (2009110014)

– Fitriyani (2009110020)

– Hanna Anggraeni (2009110036)


Posted by on October 4, 2011 in Articles


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Week 1 Reflection

This week is the first meeting in Motivation and Management of Students for Effective Learning (MMSEL) subject. Before entering the class, I felt so sleepy caused of the schedule. Yes, MMSEL class will start at 8 a.m.. It makes (nope, forces actually :p) me to wake up earlier in the morning. That’s why I felt sleepy in that time. I also felt curious with the lecturer, Ms Lidya. Actually, I have already met  her in the Welcoming Worship last Friday. But, I really want to see the way she taught us. Besides the lecturer, I also curious about the subject. I want to know what new knowledge that I will get from this subject.

From the meeting, I reflect so many things about my teaching, especially on the motivation side. I realize about what thing that motivated me to become a teacher. Actually, I didn’t have it specifically. I just like to teach someone, the feeling when I see someone understand with my explanation is so grateful. Then, I remember my teachers that inspire me to become a teacher, i.e.:

My Biology teacher (Junior High School), because she taught me in a different way. She makes me understand Biology through her story. Yes, she always tells a story about the topic that being taught.

My Mathematics teacher (Junior High School), because she made me see mathematics in real life situation. He is my first mathematic teacher that use real life example in the lesson.

My PETA’s lecturer (SSE), because he showed me many ways to teach Mathematics. Those new methods are really new and innovative for me, because I haven’t seen it in my study before.

Those three teacher (and lecturer actually) really inspire me and become my motivation to become a good teacher. I also reflect on myself, that later I want to do what they did to me: motivate my students.

Through this first meeting, I can conclude that I have my own expectations of this subject. I hope I can get more understanding and knowledge about motivation. This is important, because I also learned that motivation come from 2 sides, intrinsic and extrinsic. I can help myself (and other people also) to dig my intrinsic motivation. I also can give any extrinsic motivation to my students on they learning activity. This skill and knowledge will enrich me to become a great teacher someday. 🙂

Jonathan Saputra



Posted by on September 25, 2011 in Reflection week 1


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